How To Set Up Nginx Server Blocks

By Justin Ellingwood

Introduction

When using the Nginx web server, server blocks (similar to the virtual hosts in Apache) can be used to encapsulate configuration details and host more than one domain off of a single server.

In this guide, we’ll discuss how to configure server blocks in Nginx on an Ubuntu 16.04 server.

Prerequisites

We’re going to be using a non-root user with sudo privileges throughout this tutorial. If you do not have a user like this configured, you can create one by following our Ubuntu 16.04 initial server setup guide.

You will also need to have Nginx installed on your server. The following guides cover this procedure:

When you have fulfilled these requirements, you can continue on with this guide.

Example Configuration

For demonstration purposes, we’re going to set up two domains with our Nginx server. The domain names we’ll use in this guide are example.com and test.com.

You can find a guide on how to set up domain names with DigitalOcean here. If you do not have two spare domain names to play with, use dummy names for now and we’ll show you later how to configure your local computer to test your configuration.

Step One: Set Up New Document Root Directories

By default, Nginx on Ubuntu 16.04 has one server block enabled by default. It is configured to serve documents out of a directory at /var/www/html.

While this works well for a single site, we need additional directories if we’re going to serve multiple sites. We can consider the /var/www/html directory the default directory that will be served if the client request doesn’t match any of our other sites.

We will create a directory structure within /var/www for each of our sites. The actual web content will be placed in an html directory within these site-specific directories. This gives us some additional flexibility to create other directories associated with our sites as siblings to the html directory if necessary.

We need to create these directories for each of our sites. The -p flag tells mkdir to create any necessary parent directories along the way:

  • sudo mkdir -p /var/www/example.com/html
  • sudo mkdir -p /var/www/test.com/html

Now that we have our directories, we will reassign ownership of the web directories to our normal user account. This will let us write to them without sudo.

Note

Depending on your needs, you might need to adjust the permissions or ownership of the folders again to allow certain access to the www-data user. For instance, dynamic sites will often need this. The specific permissions and ownership requirements entirely depend on what your configuration. Follow the recommendations for the specific technology you’re using.

We can use the $USER environmental variable to assign ownership to the account that we are currently signed in on (make sure you’re not logged in as root). This will allow us to easily create or edit the content in this directory:

  • sudo chown -R $USER:$USER /var/www/example.com/html
  • sudo chown -R $USER:$USER /var/www/test.com/html

The permissions of our web roots should be correct already if you have not modified your umask value, but we can make sure by typing:

  • sudo chmod -R 755 /var/www

Our directory structure is now configured and we can move on.

Step Two: Create Sample Pages for Each Site

Now that we have our directory structure set up, let’s create a default page for each of our sites so that we will have something to display.

Create an index.html file in your first domain:

  • nano /var/www/example.com/html/index.html

Inside the file, we’ll create a really basic file that indicates what site we are currently accessing. It will look like this:

/var/www/example.com/html/index.html
<html>
    <head>
        <title>Welcome to Example.com!</title>
    </head>
    <body>
        <h1>Success!  The example.com server block is working!</h1>
    </body>
</html>

Save and close the file when you are finished.

Since the file for our second site is basically going to be the same, we can copy it over to our second document root like this:

  • cp /var/www/example.com/html/index.html /var/www/test.com/html/

Now, we can open the new file in our editor:

  • nano /var/www/test.com/html/index.html

Modify it so that it refers to our second domain:

/var/www/test.com/html/index.html
<html>
    <head>
        <title>Welcome to Test.com!</title>
    </head>
    <body>
        <h1>Success!  The test.com server block is working!</h1>
    </body>
</html>

Save and close this file when you are finished. We now have some pages to display to visitors of our two domains.

Step Three: Create Server Block Files for Each Domain

Now that we have the content we wish to serve, we need to actually create the server blocks that will tell Nginx how to do this.

By default, Nginx contains one server block called default which we can use as a template for our own configurations. We will begin by designing our first domain’s server block, which we will then copy over for our second domain and make the necessary modifications.

Create the First Server Block File

As mentioned above, we will create our first server block config file by copying over the default file:

  • sudo cp /etc/nginx/sites-available/default /etc/nginx/sites-available/example.com

Now, open the new file you created in your text editor with sudo privileges:

  • sudo nano /etc/nginx/sites-available/example.com

Ignoring the commented lines, the file will look similar to this:

/etc/nginx/sites-available/example.com
server {
        listen 80 default_server;
        listen [::]:80 default_server;

        root /var/www/html;
        index index.html index.htm index.nginx-debian.html;

        server_name _;

        location / {
                try_files $uri $uri/ =404;
        }
}

First, we need to look at the listen directives. Only one of our server blocks on the server can have the default_server option enabled. This specifies which block should serve a request if the server_name requested does not match any of the available server blocks. This shouldn’t happen very frequently in real world scenarios since visitors will be accessing your site through your domain name.

You can choose to designate one of your sites as the “default” by including the default_server option in the listen directive, or you can leave the default server block enabled, which will serve the content of the /var/www/html directory if the requested host cannot be found.

In this guide, we’ll leave the default server block in place to serve non-matching requests, so we’ll remove the default_server from this and the next server block. You can choose to add the option to whichever of your server blocks makes sense to you.

/etc/nginx/sites-available/example.com
server {
        listen 80;
        listen [::]:80;

        . . .
}
Note

You can check that the default_server option is only enabled in a single active file by typing:

  • grep -R default_server /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/

If matches are found uncommented in more than on file (shown in the leftmost column), Nginx will complain about an invalid configuration.

The next thing we’re going to have to adjust is the document root, specified by the root directive. Point it to the site’s document root that you created:

/etc/nginx/sites-available/example.com
server {
        listen 80;
        listen [::]:80;

        root /var/www/example.com/html;

}

Next, we need to modify the server_name to match requests for our first domain. We can additionally add any aliases that we want to match. We will add a http://www.example.com alias to demonstrate.

When you are finished, your file will look something like this:

/etc/nginx/sites-available/example.com
server {
        listen 80;
        listen [::]:80;

        root /var/www/example.com/html;
        index index.html index.htm index.nginx-debian.html;

        server_name example.com www.example.com;

        location / {
                try_files $uri $uri/ =404;
        }
}

That is all we need for a basic configuration. Save and close the file to exit.

Create the Second Server Block File

Now that we have our initial server block configuration, we can use that as a basis for our second file. Copy it over to create a new file:

  • sudo cp /etc/nginx/sites-available/example.com /etc/nginx/sites-available/test.com

Open the new file with sudo privileges in your editor:

  • sudo nano /etc/nginx/sites-available/test.com

Again, make sure that you do not use the default_server option for the listen directive in this file if you’ve already used it elsewhere. Adjust the root directive to point to your second domain’s document root and adjust the server_name to match your second site’s domain name (make sure to include any aliases).

When you are finished, your file will likely look something like this:

/etc/nginx/sites-available/test.com
server {
        listen 80;
        listen [::]:80;

        root /var/www/test.com/html;
        index index.html index.htm index.nginx-debian.html;

        server_name test.com www.test.com;

        location / {
                try_files $uri $uri/ =404;
        }
}

When you are finished, save and close the file.

Step Four: Enable your Server Blocks and Restart Nginx

Now that we have our server block files, we need to enable them. We can do this by creating symbolic links from these files to the sites-enabled directory, which Nginx reads from during startup.

We can create these links by typing:

  • sudo ln -s /etc/nginx/sites-available/example.com /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/
  • sudo ln -s /etc/nginx/sites-available/test.com /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/

These files are now in the enabled directory. We now have three server blocks enabled, which are configured to respond based on their listen directive and the server_name (you can read more about how Nginx processes these directives here):

  • example.com: Will respond to requests for example.com and http://www.example.com
  • test.com: Will respond to requests for test.com and http://www.test.com
  • default: Will respond to any requests on port 80 that do not match the other two blocks.

In order to avoid a possible hash bucket memory problem that can arise from adding additional server names, we will go ahead and adjust a single value within our /etc/nginx/nginx.conf file. Open the file now:

  • sudo nano /etc/nginx/nginx.conf

Within the file, find the server_names_hash_bucket_size directive. Remove the # symbol to uncomment the line:

/etc/nginx/nginx.conf
http {
    . . .

    server_names_hash_bucket_size 64;

    . . .
}

Save and close the file when you are finished.

Next, test to make sure that there are no syntax errors in any of your Nginx files:

  • sudo nginx -t

If no problems were found, restart Nginx to enable your changes:

  • sudo systemctl restart nginx

Nginx should now be serving both of your domain names.

Step Five: Modify Your Local Hosts File for Testing(Optional)

If you have not been using domain names that you own and instead have been using dummy values, you can modify your local computer’s configuration to let you to temporarily test your Nginx server block configuration.

This will not allow other visitors to view your site correctly, but it will give you the ability to reach each site independently and test your configuration. This basically works by intercepting requests that would usually go to DNS to resolve domain names. Instead, we can set the IP addresses we want our local computer to go to when we request the domain names.

Note

Make sure you are operating on your local computer during these steps and not your VPS server. You will need to have root access, be a member of the administrative group, or otherwise be able to edit system files to do this.

If you are on a Mac or Linux computer at home, you can edit the file needed by typing:

  • sudo nano /etc/hosts

If you are on Windows, you can find instructions for altering your hosts file here.

You need to know your server’s public IP address and the domains you want to route to the server. Assuming that my server’s public IP address is 203.0.113.5, the lines I would add to my file would look something like this:

/etc/hosts
127.0.0.1   localhost
. . .

203.0.113.5 example.com www.example.com
203.0.113.5 test.com www.test.com

This will intercept any requests for example.com and test.com and send them to your server, which is what we want if we don’t actually own the domains that we are using.

Save and close the file when you are finished.

Step Six: Test your Results

Now that you are all set up, you should test that your server blocks are functioning correctly. You can do that by visiting the domains in your web browser:

http://example.com

You should see a page that looks like this:

Nginx first server block

If you visit your second domain name, you should see a slightly different site:

http://test.com

Nginx second server block

If both of these sites work, you have successfully configured two independent server blocks with Nginx.

At this point, if you adjusted your hosts file on your local computer in order to test, you’ll probably want to remove the lines you added.

If you need domain name access to your server for a public-facing site, you will probably want to purchase a domain name for each of your sites. You can learn how to set them up to point to your server here.

Conclusion

You should now have the ability to create server blocks for each domain you wish to host from the same server. There aren’t any real limits on the number of server blocks you can create, so long as your hardware can handle the traffic.

 

Copy from: https://www.digitalocean.com/community/tutorials/how-to-set-up-nginx-server-blocks-virtual-hosts-on-ubuntu-16-04

SSL in DigitalOcean

Goto your server and

openssl req -new -newkey rsa:2048 -nodes -keyout server.key -out server.csr

 

 

  1.  Generate Key and CSR file for request certificate in hosting by using command
    sudo openssl req -x509 -nodes -days 365 -newkey rsa:2048 -keyout /etc/ssl/private/example.com.key -out /etc/ssl/certs/example.com.crt
  2. Go to control panel which hosting provide SSL and download
  3. Now you will get 2 files are *.key and *.crt
  4. copy file domainName.key to /etc/ssl/private/
  5. copy file domainName.crt to /etc/ssl/certs/ 
  6. modify file default in sudo nano /etc/nginx/sites-available/default as bellow

server {

        listen 80 default_server;

        listen [::]:80 default_server;

        # SSL configuration

        #

        listen 443 ssl http2 default_server;

        listen [::]:443 ssl http2 default_server;

        #

        # Note: You should disable gzip for SSL traffic.

        # See: https://bugs.debian.org/773332

        #

        # Read up on ssl_ciphers to ensure a secure configuration.

        # See: https://bugs.debian.org/765782

        #

        # Self signed certs generated by the ssl-cert package

        # Don’t use them in a production server!

        #

        # include snippets/snakeoil.conf;

        root /var/www/landing-page;

        # Add index.php to the list if you are using PHP

        index index.html index.htm index.nginx-debian.html;

        server_name domain.com;

        #ssl on;

        ssl_protocols       TLSv1 TLSv1.1 TLSv1.2;

        ssl_ciphers         “HIGH:!aNULL:!MD5 or HIGH:!aNULL:!MD5:!3DES”;

        ssl_certificate     /etc/ssl/certs/domain.com.crt;

        ssl_certificate_key /etc/ssl/private/domain.com.key;

        location / {

                # First attempt to serve request as file, then

                # as directory, then fall back to displaying a 404.

                try_files $uri $uri/ =404;

        }

}

 

server {

       listen         80;

       server_name    http://www.domain.com;

       return         301 https://$server_name$request_uri;

}

 

Referenced: https://websiteforstudents.com/setup-nginx-http-server-self-signed-ssl-tls-certificates-on-ubuntu-16-04-lts-servers/

https://www.xolphin.com/support/Nginx/Nginx_-_Redirect_HTTP_to_HTTPS

Install Parse Server

Prerequisites

  1. Mongodb
  2. Nodejs

    $ curl -sL https://deb.nodesource.com/setup_8.x | sudo -E bash -
    $ sudo apt-get install -y nodejs
  3. Settup Parse Server
  4. Setup Parse Dashboard

 

var dashboard = new ParseDashboard({

  “apps”: [

    {

      “serverURL”: “http://192.168.92.128:1337/parse”,

      “appId”: “ChindaKey”,

      “masterKey”: “MchindaKey”,

      “appName”: “MyApp”

    }

  ],

  users: [{

    user: “admin”,

    pass: “admin”

  }]

}, {

  allowInsecureHTTP: true

});

How To Install Parse Server on Ubuntu 16.04 & 14.04

https://github.com/parse-community/parse-dashboard

https://github.com/parse-community/parse-dashboard

https://nodejs.org/en/download/package-manager/

 

Auto start pm2 when reboot Windows

install pm2:

$ npm install pm2 -g

install mp2 start for windows

$ npm install pm2-windows-startup -g

 

install pm2 window service

$ npm i pm2-windows-service -g

$ pm2-service-install [-n <service name>]

and go to this install path: C:\Users\Administrator\AppData\Roaming\npm\node_modules\pm2-windows-service\src\daemon\ and find file

is called “mp2node” and edit at <argument>[js file].js</argument> to path of your javascript file and save and reboot service in “Service.msc”

 

 

 

 

Install RabbitMQ on Windows

 

  1. Download rabbitmq at:
  2. Install
  3. Config Manangement
    • Open cmd
    • go to this path: C:\Program Files (x86)\RabbitMQ Server\rabbitmq_server-3.3.4\sbin
    • input rabbitmq-plugins.bat enable rabbitmq_management and press enter key
    • rabbitmq-service.bat stop
    • rabbitmq-service.bat install
    • rabbitmq-service.bat start
  4. Start use: http://localhost:15672
    • User: guest
    • Password: guest
  5. Crate User:
    • Add a new/fresh user, say user ‘test’ and password ‘test’
      rabbitmqctl add_user test test
    • Give administrative access to the new access
      rabbitmqctl set_user_tags test administrator
    • Set permission to newly created user
      rabbitmqctl set_permissions -p / test ".*" ".*" ".*"
  6. How to allow Guest login via IP
    • C:\Users\[User Name]\AppData\Roaming\RabbitMQ\rabbitmq.config
    • And add: [{rabbit, [{loopback_users, []}]}]. 

Get started with RabbitMQ on Android (Android Studio)

By: LOVISA JOHANSSON (cloudamqp)

This guide explains how to create a simple chat application in Android using Android Studio and RabbitMQ. Everyone that has the application will be able to send and receive messages from all other users that are using the same application.

If you are using Eclipse, check out this blog post instead.

In the code given, messages will first be added to an internal queue and the publisher will send messages from the internal queue to RabbitMQ when there is a connection established. The message will be added back to the queue if the connection is broken.

RabbitMQ Android

This guide assumes that you have downloaded, installed and set up everything correct for Android Studio.

Start by creating a new Android project, open Android Studio and go to File -> New -> New Project..

1. Configure your new project

  1. Enter project information as specified below.create new android project
  2. Select the form factor your app will run onandroid studio
  3. Select if you like to add an activity to your app or not. In this example we choose Blank Activity to get autogenerated files for the project.add android activity
  4. Customize the Activitycustomize android activity

2. Add Java AMQP library to project

RabbitMQ has developed an excellent Java AMQP library. The full API documentation for the library can be found here.

We need to include the RabbitMQ Java Client Library and reference the jar files into the project. In Android Studio you can create a libs folder in the same level as the app. Copy and past the jars in to this libs folder. Mark all the jar files and press “Add As Library…” as seen in the image below.

add rabbitmq library

You can confirm that the libs has been added as library by opening build.gradle and check under dependencies, all files should seen be there.

dependencies {
  ...
  compile files('libs/rabbitmq-client.jar')
  ...
}

NOTE: Only if you are using Android Gradle plugin 0.7.0 and do get the error “Duplicate files copied in APK” when you later run your application, you need to add packagingOptions to your build.gradle file as specified in here.

android {
  packagingOptions {
    exclude 'META-INF/LICENSE.txt'
    exclude 'META-INF/NOTICE.txt'
  }
}

3. Android Manifest, internet permission

We need to tell the Android system that this app is allowed to access internet. Open the AndroidManifest.xml file, located in the root of the project. Add the user permission android.permission.INTERNET just before the closing /manifest tag.

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<manifest xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android"
      package="com.cloudamqp.rabbitmq"
     android:versionCode="1"
     android:versionName="1.0">
     ......
     <uses-permission android:name="android.permission.INTERNET"></uses-permission>
</manifest>

4. Start coding

Layout

Create the view for the application. The .xml layout file can be found under res->layout. What we have here is a root ScrollView containing a

EditText a Button and a TextView The EditText will be used as an input field for the text that will be sent. The text will be published when the button is pressed and all messages received by the subscriber will be printed to the TextView.

<ScrollView xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android"
  ...
  <EditText
  android:id="@+id/text"
  android:layout_width="fill_parent"
  android:background="#ffffff"
  android:hint="Enter a message" />

  <Button
  android:id="@+id/publish"
  android:layout_width="match_parent"
  android:layout_height="wrap_content"
  android:layout_below="@+id/text"
  android:text="Publish message" />

  <TextView
  android:id="@+id/textView"
  android:layout_width="match_parent"
  android:layout_height="wrap_content"
  android:layout_below="@+id/publish"
  android:textColor="#000000" />
  ...
</ScrollView>

Publish

Create an internal message queue. In this case is a BlockingDeque used. Blockingqueues implementations are designed to be used primarily for producer-consumer queues.

private BlockingDeque<String> queue = new LinkedBlockingDeque>String>();
void publishMessage(String message) {
  try {
    Log.d("","[q] " + message);
    queue.putLast(message);
  } catch (InterruptedException e) {
    e.printStackTrace();
  }
}

Create a setup function for the ConnectionFactory The connection factory encapsulates a set of connection configuration parameters, in this case the CLOUDAMQP_URL. The URL can be found in the control panel for your instance.

ConnectionFactory factory = new ConnectionFactory();
private void setupConnectionFactory() {
  String uri = "IP";
  try {
    factory.setAutomaticRecoveryEnabled(false);
    //factory.setUri(uri);
    factory.setHost(uri);

  } catch (KeyManagementException | NoSuchAlgorithmException | URISyntaxException e1) {
    e1.printStackTrace();
}

Create a publisher that publish messages from the internal queue. Messages are added back to the queue if an exception is catched. The publisher will try to reconnect every 5 seconds if the connection is broken.

A thread (“background” or “worker” threads or use of the AsyncTask class) is needed when we have operations to perform that are not instantaneous, such as network access when connecting to rabbitMQ.

We will use a fanout exchange. A fanout exchange routes messages to all of the queues that are bound to it and the routing key is ignored. If N queues are bound to a fanout exchange, will a new message that is published to that exchange, be copied and delivered to all N queues. Fanout exchanges are ideal for the broadcast routing of messages.

public void publishToAMQP()
{
  publishThread = new Thread(new Runnable() {
    @Override
    public void run() {
      while(true) {
        try {
          Connection connection = factory.newConnection();
          Channel ch = connection.createChannel();
          ch.confirmSelect();

          while (true) {
            String message = queue.takeFirst();
            try{
              ch.basicPublish("amq.fanout", "chat", null, message.getBytes());
              Log.d("", "[s] " + message);
              ch.waitForConfirmsOrDie();
            } catch (Exception e){
              Log.d("","[f] " + message);
              queue.putFirst(message);
              throw e;
           }
         }
       } catch (InterruptedException e) {
         break;
       } catch (Exception e) {
         Log.d("", "Connection broken: " + e.getClass().getName());
         try {
           Thread.sleep(5000); //sleep and then try again
         } catch (InterruptedException e1) {
           break;
         }
       }
     }
   }
  });
  publishThread.start();
}

Subscriber

We have now created the publisher, and it is time to create the subscriber. The subscriber will take a handler as parameter. The handler will print the messages to the screen when the messages arrives. The subscribe thread will try to reconnect every 5 seconds when the connection gets broken.

void subscribe(final Handler handler)
{
  subscribeThread = new Thread(new Runnable() {
    @Override
    public void run() {
      while(true) {
        try {
          Connection connection = factory.newConnection();
          Channel channel = connection.createChannel();
          channel.basicQos(1);
          DeclareOk q = channel.queueDeclare();
          channel.queueBind(q.getQueue(), "amq.fanout", "chat");
          QueueingConsumer consumer = new QueueingConsumer(channel);
          channel.basicConsume(q.getQueue(), true, consumer);

          while (true) {
            QueueingConsumer.Delivery delivery = consumer.nextDelivery();
            String message = new String(delivery.getBody());
            Log.d("","[r] " + message);
            Message msg = handler.obtainMessage();
            Bundle bundle = new Bundle();
            bundle.putString("msg", message);
            msg.setData(bundle);
            handler.sendMessage(msg);
          }
        } catch (InterruptedException e) {
          break;
        } catch (Exception e1) {
          Log.d("", "Connection broken: " + e1.getClass().getName());
          try {
            Thread.sleep(5000); //sleep and then try again
          } catch (InterruptedException e) {
            break;
          }
        }
      }
    }
  });
  subscribeThread.start();
}

Call all functions listed above from function onCreate The handler used by the subscribe functions is also created in onCreate. A handler has to be used because it is only possible to write to the GUI from the main tread.

@Override
public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
  setContentView(R.layout.activity_main);

  setupConnectionFactory();
  publishToAMQP();
  setupPubButton();

  final Handler incomingMessageHandler = new Handler() {
    @Override
    public void handleMessage(Message msg) {
      String message = msg.getData().getString("msg");
      TextView tv = (TextView) findViewById(R.id.textView);
      Date now = new Date();
      SimpleDateFormat ft = new SimpleDateFormat ("hh:mm:ss");
      tv.append(ft.format(now) + ' ' + message + '\n');
    }
  };
  subscribe(incomingMessageHandler);
}

void setupPubButton() {
  Button button = (Button) findViewById(R.id.publish);
  button.setOnClickListener(new OnClickListener() {
    @Override
    public void onClick(View arg0) {
      EditText et = (EditText) findViewById(R.id.text);
      publishMessage(et.getText().toString());
      et.setText("");
   }
  });
}

The subscribe and the publish tread can both be interrupted when the application is destroyed by adding following code in onDestroy

Thread subscribeThread;
Thread publishThread;
@Override
protected void onDestroy() {
  super.onDestroy();
  publishThread.interrupt();
  subscribeThread.interrupt();
}

 

Copy from: https://www.cloudamqp.com/blog/2015-07-29-rabbitmq-on-android.html

How to enable GZip compression in XAMPP server

By: TarranJones

When we test our webiste by tools.pingdom.com and we get error:

The following publicly cacheable, compressible resources should have a “Vary: Accept-Encoding” header

 

Find apache\conf\httpd.conf

uncomment the following line(remove #)

LoadModule headers_module modules/mod_deflate.so

some versions may require you to comment out the following lines instead.

LoadModule headers_module modules/mod_headers.so
LoadModule deflate_module modules/mod_deflate.so

finally add this line to your .htaccess file.

SetOutputFilter DEFLATE

Copy from: http://stackoverflow.com/questions/6993320/how-to-enable-gzip-compression-in-xampp-server

How to install and configure Solr 6 on Ubuntu 16.04

By: www.howtoforge.com

What is Apache Solr? Apache Solr is an open source enterprise-class search platform written in Java which enables you to create custom search engines that index databases, files, and websites. It has back end support for Apache Lucene. It can e.g. be used to search in multiple websites and can show recommendations for the searched content. Solr uses an XML (Extensible Markup Language) based query and result language. There are APIs (Applications program interfaces) available for Python, Ruby and JSON (Javascript Object Notation).

Some other features that Solr provides are:

  • Full-Text Search.
  • Snippet generation and highlighting.
  • Custom Document ordering/ranking.
  • Spell Suggestions.

This tutorial will show you how to install the latest Solr version on Ubuntu 16.04 LTS. The steps will most likely work with later Ubuntu versions as well.

Update your System

Use a non-root sudo user to login into your Ubuntu server. Through this user, you will have to perform all the steps and use the Solr later.

To update your system, execute the following command to update your system with latest patches and updates.

sudo apt-get update && apt-get upgrade -y

Install Ubuntu System updates.

Setting up the Java Runtime Environment

Solr is a Java application, so the Java runtime environment needs to be installed first in order to set up Solr.

We have to install Python Software properties in order to install the latest Java 8. Run the following command to install the software.

root@server1:~# sudo apt-get install python-software-properties
Reading package lists… Done
Building dependency tree
Reading state information… Done
The following additional packages will be installed:
libpython-stdlib libpython2.7-minimal libpython2.7-stdlib python python-apt
python-minimal python-pycurl python2.7 python2.7-minimal
Suggested packages:
python-doc python-tk python-apt-dbg python-apt-doc libcurl4-gnutls-dev
python-pycurl-dbg python-pycurl-doc python2.7-doc binutils binfmt-support
The following NEW packages will be installed:
libpython-stdlib libpython2.7-minimal libpython2.7-stdlib python python-apt
python-minimal python-pycurl python-software-properties python2.7
python2.7-minimal
0 upgraded, 10 newly installed, 0 to remove and 3 not upgraded.
Need to get 4,070 kB of archives.
After this operation, 17.3 MB of additional disk space will be used.
Do you want to continue? [Y/n]

Press Y to continue.

Install Python.

After executing the command, add the webupd8team Java PPA repository in your system by running:

sudo add-apt-repository ppa:webupd8team/java

Press [ENTER] when requested. Now, you can easily install the latest version of Java 8 with apt.

First, update the package lists to fetch the available packages from the new PPA:

sudo apt-get update

Update Ubuntu 16.04

Then install the latest version of Oracle Java 8 with this command:

sudo apt-get install oracle-java8-installer

JDK

sudo apt-get install openjdk-8-jdk

JRE

sudo apt-get install openjdk-8-jre

root@server1:~# sudo apt-get install oracle-java8-installer
Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree
Reading state information... Done
The following additional packages will be installed:
 binutils gsfonts gsfonts-x11 java-common libfontenc1 libxfont1 x11-common xfonts-encodings xfonts-utils
Suggested packages:
 binutils-doc binfmt-support visualvm ttf-baekmuk | ttf-unfonts | ttf-unfonts-core ttf-kochi-gothic | ttf-sazanami-gothic ttf-kochi-mincho | ttf-sazanami-mincho ttf-arphic-uming firefox
 | firefox-2 | iceweasel | mozilla-firefox | iceape-browser | mozilla-browser | epiphany-gecko | epiphany-webkit | epiphany-browser | galeon | midbrowser | moblin-web-browser | xulrunner
 | xulrunner-1.9 | konqueror | chromium-browser | midori | google-chrome
The following NEW packages will be installed:
 binutils gsfonts gsfonts-x11 java-common libfontenc1 libxfont1 oracle-java8-installer x11-common xfonts-encodings xfonts-utils
0 upgraded, 10 newly installed, 0 to remove and 3 not upgraded.
Need to get 6,498 kB of archives.
After this operation, 20.5 MB of additional disk space will be used.
Do you want to continue? [Y/n]

Press Y to continue.

You MUST agree to the license available in http://java.com/license if you want to use Oracle JDK, clicking on the OK button.

Accept Java License

Downloading Java

The package installs a kind of meta-installer which then downloads the binaries directly from Oracle. After installation process, check the version of Java installed by running the following command

java -version

java version "1.8.0_91"
Java(TM) SE Runtime Environment (build 1.8.0_91-b14)
Java HotSpot(TM) 64-Bit Server VM (build 25.91-b14, mixed mode)

Now you have installed Java 8 and we will move to the next step.

Installing the Solr application

Solr can be installed on Ubuntu in different ways, in this article, I will show you how to install the latest package from the source.

We will begin by downloading the Solr distribution. First finding the latest version of the available package from their web page, copy the link and download it using the wget command

For this setup, we will use  http://www.us.apache.org/dist/lucene/solr/6.0.1/

cd /tmp
wget http://www.us.apache.org/dist/lucene/solr/6.0.1/solr-6.0.1.tgz

root@server1:/tmp# wget http://www.us.apache.org/dist/lucene/solr/6.0.1/solr-6.0.1.tgz
--2016-06-03 11:31:54-- http://www.us.apache.org/dist/lucene/solr/6.0.1/solr-6.0.1.tgz
Resolving www.us.apache.org (www.us.apache.org)... 140.211.11.105
Connecting to www.us.apache.org (www.us.apache.org)|140.211.11.105|:80... connected.
HTTP request sent, awaiting response... 200 OK
Length: 137924507 (132M) [application/x-gzip]
Saving to: ‘solr-6.0.1.tgz’

Now, run the given below command to extract the service installation file:

tar xzf solr-6.0.1.tgz solr-6.0.1/bin/install_solr_service.sh –strip-components=2

And install Solr as a service using the script:

sudo ./install_solr_service.sh solr-6.0.1.tgz

The output will be similar to this:

 root@server1:/tmp# sudo ./install_solr_service.sh solr-6.0.1.tgz
id: ‘solr’: no such user
Creating new user: solr
Adding system user `solr' (UID 111) ...
Adding new group `solr' (GID 117) ...
Adding new user `solr' (UID 111) with group `solr' ...
Creating home directory `/var/solr' ...

Extracting solr-6.0.1.tgz to /opt


Installing symlink /opt/solr -> /opt/solr-6.0.1 ...


Installing /etc/init.d/solr script ...


Installing /etc/default/solr.in.sh ...

? solr.service - LSB: Controls Apache Solr as a Service
 Loaded: loaded (/etc/init.d/solr; bad; vendor preset: enabled)
 Active: active (exited) since Fri 2016-06-03 11:37:05 CEST; 5s ago
 Docs: man:systemd-sysv-generator(8)
 Process: 20929 ExecStart=/etc/init.d/solr start (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS)

Jun 03 11:36:43 server1 systemd[1]: Starting LSB: Controls Apache Solr as a Service...
Jun 03 11:36:44 server1 su[20934]: Successful su for solr by root
Jun 03 11:36:44 server1 su[20934]: + ??? root:solr
Jun 03 11:36:44 server1 su[20934]: pam_unix(su:session): session opened for user solr by (uid=0)
Jun 03 11:37:05 server1 solr[20929]: [313B blob data]
Jun 03 11:37:05 server1 solr[20929]: Started Solr server on port 8983 (pid=20989). Happy searching!
Jun 03 11:37:05 server1 solr[20929]: [14B blob data]
Jun 03 11:37:05 server1 systemd[1]: Started LSB: Controls Apache Solr as a Service.
Service solr installed.

Use this command to check the status of the service

service solr status

You should see an output that begins with this:

root@server1:/tmp# service solr status
? solr.service - LSB: Controls Apache Solr as a Service
 Loaded: loaded (/etc/init.d/solr; bad; vendor preset: enabled)
 Active: active (exited) since Fri 2016-06-03 11:37:05 CEST; 39s ago
 Docs: man:systemd-sysv-generator(8)
 Process: 20929 ExecStart=/etc/init.d/solr start (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS)

Jun 03 11:36:43 server1 systemd[1]: Starting LSB: Controls Apache Solr as a Service...
Jun 03 11:36:44 server1 su[20934]: Successful su for solr by root
Jun 03 11:36:44 server1 su[20934]: + ??? root:solr
Jun 03 11:36:44 server1 su[20934]: pam_unix(su:session): session opened for user solr by (uid=0)
Jun 03 11:37:05 server1 solr[20929]: [313B blob data]
Jun 03 11:37:05 server1 solr[20929]: Started Solr server on port 8983 (pid=20989). Happy searching!
Jun 03 11:37:05 server1 solr[20929]: [14B blob data]
Jun 03 11:37:05 server1 systemd[1]: Started LSB: Controls Apache Solr as a Service.

Creating a Solr search collection:

Using Solr, we can create multiple collections. Run the given command, mention the name of the collection (here gettingstarted) and specify its configurations.

sudo su – solr -c “/opt/solr/bin/solr create -c gettingstarted -n data_driven_schema_configs”

root@server1:/tmp# sudo su - solr -c "/opt/solr/bin/solr create -c gettingstarted -n data_driven_schema_configs"

Copying configuration to new core instance directory:
/var/solr/data/gettingstarted

Creating new core 'gettingstarted' using command:
http://localhost:8983/solr/admin/cores?action=CREATE&name=gettingstarted&instanceDir=gettingstarted

{
 "responseHeader":{
 "status":0,
 "QTime":4427},
 "core":"gettingstarted"}

The new core directory for our first collection has been created. To view the default schema file, got to:

/opt/solr/server/solr/configsets/data_driven_schema_configs/conf

 

Use the Solr Web Interface

The Apache Solr is now accessible on the default port, which is 8983. The admin UI should be accessible at http://your_server_ip:8983/solr. The port should be allowed by your firewall to run the links.

For example:

http://192.168.1.100:8983/solr/

The Solr web interface.

To see the details of the first collection that we created earlier, select the “gettingstarted” collection in the left menu.

Details of our data collection.

After you selected the “gettingstarted” collection, select Documents in the left menu. There you can enter real data in JSON format that will be searchable by Solr. To add more data, copy and paste the following example JSON onto Document field:

{
 "id": 1,
 "book_title": "My First Book",
 "published": 1985,
 "description": "All about Linux"
}

Click on the submit document button after adding the data.

Submit a document to Solr.

Status: success
Response:

{
 "responseHeader": {
 "status": 0,
 "QTime": 189
 }
}

Now we can click on Query on the left side then click on Execute Query,

Execute a query in Solr.

We will see something like this:

{
  "responseHeader":{
    "status":0,
    "QTime":24,
    "params":{
      "q":"*:*",
      "indent":"on",
      "wt":"json",
      "_":"1464947017056"}},
  "response":{"numFound":1,"start":0,"docs":[
      {
        "id":"1",
        "book_title":["My First Book"],
        "published":[1985],
        "description":["All about Linux"],
        "_version_":1536108205792296960}]
  }}

Virtual machine image download of this tutorial

This tutorial is available as ready to use virtual machine image in ovf/ova format for Howtoforge Subscribers. The VM format is compatible with VMWare and Virtualbox. The virtual machine image uses the following login details:

SSH / Shell Login

Username: administrator
Password: howtoforge

This user has sudo rights.

Please change all the above passwords to secure the virtual machine.

Conclusion

After successfully installing the Solr Web Interface on Ubuntu, you can now insert the data or query the data with the Solr API and Web Interface.

 

Copy from: https://www.howtoforge.com/tutorial/how-to-install-and-configure-solr-on-ubuntu-1604/

Handling URL Binding Failures in IIS Express

By Vaidy Gopalakrishnan

 

 

Overview

IIS Express was designed to allow the most common web development and testing tasks to be performed without administrative privileges. For example, you can run a website locally using a non-reserved port. You can also test your website with SSL using a self-signed test certificate and a port in the range 44300 to 44399. See Running IIS Express without Administrative Privileges for details.

However, you might occasionally need to use IIS Express for testing scenarios that are not enabled by default. For example, although IIS Express is not designed to be a production web server like IIS, you might need to test external access to your website. Similarly, you might want to test your site using SSL or using a specific reserved port number.

By default, if you use IIS Express to test these scenarios, it reports a URL binding failure. This occurs because IIS Express does not have sufficient privileges to perform these types of tasks. You can run IIS Express as an administrator to bypass these restrictions, but this is not a good practice for security reasons.

The correct approach to testing with IIS Express in these scenarios is to configure HTTP.sys to allow IIS Express running under standard permissions to perform the tasks. When your testing is complete, you can revert the configuration. For security reasons, these tasks are restricted to administrators and cannot be performed by standard (non-administrator) users.

About HTTP.sys

HTTP.sys is an operating system component that handles HTTP and SSL traffic for both IIS and IIS Express. By default, HTTP.sys prevents applications (including IIS Express) from doing the following operations if the application is run by a standard user:

  • Using reserved ports such as 80 or 443
  • Serving external traffic
  • Using SSL

You can configure HTTP.sys to permit these operations for IIS Express. On Windows 7 and Windows Vista, you can configure HTTP.sys using the netsh.exe utility. On Windows XP, HTTP.sys can be configured using the httpcfg.exe command-line utility, which is included with Windows XP Service Pack 2 Support Tools.

Using a Reserved Port

By default, you can use IIS Express to run your website using a non-reserved port such as 8080. However, using a reserved port such as 80 or 443 requires work. The steps described below assume you want to support local traffic over port 80.

On Windows 7 or Windows Vista, from an elevated command prompt, run the following command:

netsh http add urlacl url=http://localhost:80/ user=everyone 

This command will allow any user’s application (including your own IIS Express instances) to run using port 80 without requiring administrative privileges. To limit this access to yourself, replace “everyone” with your Windows identity.

On Windows XP, you need to run the following command from an elevated command prompt:

httpcfg set urlacl /u http://localhost:80/ /a D:(A;;GX;;;WD) 

After configuring HTTP.sys, you can configure your website to use port 80. This is very straightforward using tools like WebMatrix and Visual Studio 2010 SP1 Beta. You can also manually edit the applicationhost.config file to include the following binding in the sites element.

<binding protocol="http" bindingInformation="*:80:localhost"/>

Your website will now run (locally) using port 80.

When you are done testing your application, you should revert HTTP.sys to its earlier settings.

On Windows 7 or Windows Vista, run the following command from an elevated command prompt:

netsh http delete urlacl url=http://localhost:80/ 

On Windows XP, run the following command from an elevated prompt:

httpcfg delete urlacl /u http://localhost:80/ 

Serving External Traffic

To enable your website to serve external traffic, you need to configure HTTP.sys and your computer’s firewall. The steps described below assume external traffic will be served on port 8080.

The steps for configuring HTTP.sys for external traffic are similar to setting up a site to use a reserved port. On Windows 7 or Windows Vista, from an elevated command prompt, run the following command:

netsh http add urlacl url=http://myhostname:8080/ user=everyone 

On Windows XP, run the following command from an elevated command prompt:

httpcfg set urlacl /u http://myhostname:8080/ /a D:(A;;GX;;;WD) 

After configuring HTTP.sys, you can configure IIS Express to use port 80 by using WebMatrix or Visual Studio 2010 SP1 Beta, or by editing the applicationhost.config file to include the following binding in the sites element. (Replace myhostname with your computer’s domain name).

<binding protocol="http" bindingInformation="*:8080:myhostname"/>

You will also need to configure the firewall to allow external traffic to flow through port 8080. The steps will vary depending on which firewall you are using and aren’t described here.

When you are done testing your application, revert HTTP.sys to its earlier settings.

On Windows 7 or Windows Vista, run the following command from an elevated command prompt:

netsh http delete urlacl url=http://myhostname:8080/

On Windows XP, run the following command from an elevated prompt:

httpcfg delete urlacl /u http://myhostname:8080/ 

Using a Custom SSL Port

If you want to test SSL access to your site, you can do this with IIS Express by using an SSL port between 44300 and 44399 and using the IIS Express self-signed certificate. Trying to use SSL with a port outside this range results in a URL binding failure when your website is launched under IIS Express.

For general instructions on how to configure HTTP.sys to support SSL, see How to: Configure a Port with an SSL Certificate. As an example, imagine that you want to test your website using the URL https://localhost:443.

First, determine the SHA1 thumbprint for the IIS Express self-signed certificate. This thumbprint is different for each computer because the IIS Express setup program generates a new certificate when executed. You can determine the SHA1 thumbprint using the Microsoft Management Console (MMC) Certificate snap-in by looking at the computer’s Personal certificate store. Alternatively, you can use the .NET CertMgr.exe utility as shown below. From a command prompt, run the following command.

certmgr.exe /c /s /r localMachine MY 

This command displays information about all the certificates in the Personal certificate store for the local computer. Search for “IIS Express Development Certificate” in the output to locate the IIS Express self-signed certificate and then note its SHA1 thumbprint.

Next, configure HTTP.sys to associate the self-signed certificate with the URL. On Windows 7 or Windows Vista, start by creating a unique UUID using uuidgen.exe or some other tool. Then run the following command from an elevated prompt, passing the thumbprint to the certhash parameter. (Exclude the spaces when you specify the thumbprint. )

netsh http add sslcert ipport=0.0.0.0:443 certhash=<thumbprint> appid={00112233-4455-6677-8899-AABBCCDDEEFF}

For the appid parameter, pass the unique UUID you created earlier.

On Windows XP, run the following command from an elevated prompt.

httpcfg set ssl -i 0.0.0.0:443 -h <thumbprint>

Since 443 is a reserved port, you will additionally need to configure HTTP.sys to allow IIS Express to use it while running as a standard user. For details, see the Using a Reserved Port section. You won’t need to perform this step if you use a non-reserved custom SSL port such as 44500.

On Windows 7 or Windows Vista, run the following command from an elevated prompt.

netsh http add urlacl url=https://localhost:443/ user=everyone 

On Windows XP, run the following command from an elevated prompt.

httpcfg set urlacl /u https://localhost:443/ /a D:(A;;GX;;;WD) 

After configuring HTTP.sys, configure your website to use the custom SSL port using WebMatrix or Visual Studio 2010 SP1 Beta, or by adding the following binding in the sites element in the applicationhost.config file.

<binding protocol="https" bindingInformation="*:443:localhost"/>

When you are done testing your website, revert HTTP.sys to its earlier settings. On Windows 7 or Windows Vista, run the following commands from an elevated prompt:

netsh http delete sslcert ipport=0.0.0.0:443
netsh http delete urlacl url=https://localhost:443/

On Windows XP, run the following commands from an elevated prompt:

httpcfg delete ssl i 0.0.0.0:443
httpcfg delete urlacl /u https://localhost:443/ 

Using a Custom SSL Certificate

Setting up a custom SSL certificate is very similar to using a custom SSL port. The steps described in this section assume your website is already serving local SSL traffic using port 44300 and the IIS Express self-signed certificate.

First, you need to install the custom SSL certificate on your computer. Use the MMC Certificate snap-in or CertMgr.exe. As you are installing your certificate, note the SHA1 thumbprint value.

The URL https://localhost:44300 is pre-configured by IIS Express setup to use a self-signed certificate. In order to bind this URL to your custom certificate, you will have to delete the existing association. Skip this step if your hostname and port combination is not associated with an SSL certificate.

On Windows 7 or Windows Vista, run the following command from an elevated prompt:

netsh http delete sslcert ipport=0.0.0.0:44300

On Windows XP, run the following command from an elevated prompt:

httpcfg delete ssl i 0.0.0.0:44300

The remaining steps are similar to those for configuring a custom SSL port. Create a unique UUID using uuidgen.exe or some other tool.

On Windows 7 or Windows Vista, run the following command from an elevated prompt, passing your custom certificates’ thumbprint (remove any spaces first) to the certhash parameter and passing your UUID.

netsh http add sslcert ipport=0.0.0.0:44300 certhash=<thumbprint> appid={00112233-4455-6677-8899-AABBCCDDEEFF}

On Windows XP, run the following command from an elevated prompt.

httpcfg set ssl -i 0.0.0.0:44300 -h <thumbprint>

Summary

This article explains the steps required to support some scenarios for IIS Express that aren’t enabled by default. Performing them requires you to be an administrator. Even if you don’t have administrative privileges, you can still perform the most common web design and development tasks with IIS Express as a standard user.

 

 

Copy from: http://www.iis.net/learn/extensions/using-iis-express/handling-url-binding-failures-in-iis-express